☢ Japanese Reclists ☢

All reclists are compatible with OREMO.

All base otos are compatible with setParam, and are based on recording at 120 BPM using my guideBGMs.

  • Using other guideBGMs or just a metronome may require changing the offset parameter; assuming each mora is held for one beat, they will be 500ms apart.
  • Changes in BPM will require adjustment of almost all values. At 100 BPM, mora will be 600ms apart, at 150 BPM, mora will be 400ms apart, etc.

Make sure to encode any kana files in Shift-JIS so that UTAU and OREMO can read them properly!

☆ Stats ☆

ReclistString CountAvg. String LengthEst. Time to RecordOTO LengthMax Pitches
Minimum CV1021 mora15 min102321
Standard CV1631 mora20 min163201
Efficiency VCV1368 morae35 min95834
Minimum VCV1178 morae30 minTBDTBD
7-Mora VCV1747 morae45 min95834
5-Mora VCV2615 morae45 min95834
8-Mora CVVC348 morae10 min312105
2-Mora CVVC1582 morae25 min42876

☆ Notation ☆

These are indicative of how I write reclists. If you're using a list made by someone other than me, it may be handled differently in some ways.


  • [_] in the middle of a string represents a single beat of silence between syllables.
  • [-] in the middle of a string represents no pause between syllables and is just there for readability.
  • ['] in between vowels represents a glottal stop.
  • [_][___][+__][C__] etc. at the beginning of a string is just there for organizational purposes.

Kana and Romanization

For non-standardized kana / romanization, I followed common conventions or else used what felt logical.

  • The syllabic nasal [ん] is represented with [N] in some VCV and CVVC lists (but not their aliases) to indicate its varied pronunciation.
  • Syllabic nasals in vowel strings are marked as [ん・ン・ン2] or [n, ng, m].
  • [ng] as a CV may use the <k> hiragana set with handakuten, e.g. [か゚], but this is more difficult to type so instead I use the <g> katakana set, like [ガ].
  • [th] as in <thing> and [dh] as in <this> use the <s> and <z> katakana sets, e.g. [サ・ザ]. [dhi] and [zhi] are differentiated as [ジ・ジィ].
  • Other reclists may use [rr] to represent an English <r> instead of a trilled <r>. I include both by having English <r> be written as [wr], which follows English orthography and alludes to its manner of articulation.
  • There is not a good way to differentiate between the four liquids [r, l, rr, wr] in kana, so I put a [2] after the less commonly used phonemes, e.g. [ら・ラ・ら2・ラ2].
  • [を] is treated as if it is pronounced as [うぉ] rather than [お].

☆ Pronunciation Guide ☆

(for English speakers)

Standard Phonemes

IPARomajiかなEnglish AppoximationNotes
aaFATHERMore fronted in the mouth, between FATHER and BACK
ɯuGOOSELips unrounded
eeFACENot a diphthong
ooGOATNot a diphthong
nnBUTTONSyllabic nasal
ɕshSHIPTongue slightly further back
jJEEPTongue slightly further back
chCHEAPTongue slightly further back
ɸfFILEProduced with the lips, no teeth
jyYOURSemivowel counterpart of <い>
ɾrLADDERFlapped <t, d> sound in American English
wwWORESemivowel counterpart of <う>
βvVILEOnly found in loanwords; produced with the lips, no teeth

Extra Phones

Dialectial / Stylistic Japanese Allophones

IPARomajiかなEnglish AppoximationNotes
ŋ, mng, mン・ン2RHYTHMSyllabic nasal variants
ŋngSINGOnly found in some accents and loanwords
ʑzhジィMEASUREAntiquated pronunciation of <じ>; tongue slightly further back
dzdzDADSAntiquated pronunciation of <づ>
llLIPEnglish <l>; <ら> can be stylized this way
rrrら2PERROTrilled <r>; <ら> can be stylized this way

Non-Native Phonemes (for English Words)

IPARomajiかなEnglish Word